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Das kostenlose E-Mail-Postfach mit 1GB Online-Speicher und sicheren Spamschutz made in Germany. Schnell und einfach anmelden. Ihr kostenloses freenet E-Mail Postfach mit ausgezeichneten Leistungen für einfache und schnell Nutzung made in Germany. Kostenlose E-Mail Adresse und Cloud-Speicher, aktuelle Nachrichten aus Politik, Sport und Wirtschaft sowie News zu Auto, Lifestyle und Technik.

A Distributed Anonymous Information Storage and Retrieval System" was the most cited computer science paper of according to Citeseer, and Freenet has also inspired papers in the worlds of law and philosophy.

An important recent development, which very few other networks have, is the "darknet": This enables people to use Freenet even in places where Freenet may be illegal, makes it very difficult for governments to block it, and does not rely on tunneling to the "free world".

There are many reasons why people get involved in the Freenet Project. Some share the views outlined in this document; some share variations of these views, which are also served by what we are trying to achieve; and some just enjoy the technical challenge.

These are the ideas which motivated me to architect the system in the first place, but not necessarily the views that everyone involved in the Freenet Project holds.

For this document to make sense, you should probably know what Freenet is. You can get a good overview from What is Freenet?

Freedom of speech, in most western cultures, is generally considered to be one of the most important rights any individual might have. Why is the freedom to share ideas and opinions so important?

There are several ways to answer this question. One of the most obvious differences between mankind and the rest of the animal kingdom is our ability to communicate sophisticated and abstract concepts.

Most people, given the option of knowing something and not knowing something, will choose to have more information rather than less.

Wars have been won and lost over who was better-informed. This is because being better-informed allows us to make better decisions, and generally improve our ability to survive and be successful.

Democracy is an answer to the question of how to create leaders, while preventing them from abusing that power.

It achieves this by giving the population the power to regulate their government through voting, yet the ability to vote does not necessarily mean that you live in a democratic country.

For a population to regulate their government effectively it must know what their government is doing, they must be well informed.

It is a feedback loop, but this loop can be broken if the government has the power to control the information the population has access to.

Everyone values their freedom, in fact, many consider it so important that they will die for it. People like to think that they are free to form and hold whatever opinions they like, particularly in western countries.

Consider now that someone had the ability to control the information you have access to. This would give them the ability to manipulate your opinions by hiding some facts from you, by presenting you with lies and censoring anything that contradicted those lies.

So long as everything we see and hear is filtered, we are not truly free. Of course no issue is black and white, and there are many who feel that censorship is a good thing in some circumstances.

For example, in some European countries propagating information deemed to be racist is illegal. Governments seek to prevent people from advocating ideas which are deemed damaging to society.

There are two answers to this however. To impose any form of censorship a government must have the ability to monitor and thus restrict communication.

There are already criticisms that the anti-racism censorship in many European countries is hampering legitimate historical analysis of events such as the second world war.

The second argument is that this "good" censorship is counter-productive even when it does not leak into other areas. For example, it is generally more effective when trying to persuade someone of something to present them with the arguments against it, and then answer those arguments.

Unfortunately, preventing people from being aware of the often sophisticated arguments used by racists, makes them vulnerable to those arguments when they do eventually encounter them.

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Initially, the locations in Darknet are distributed randomly. This means that routing of requests is essentially random. In Opennet connections are established by a join request which provides an optimized network structure if the existing network is already optimized.

As location swapping on Darknet and path folding on Opennet progress, nodes which are close to one another will increasingly have close locations, and nodes which are far away will have distant locations.

Data with similar keys will be stored on the same node. The result is that the network will self-organize into a distributed, clustered structure where nodes tend to hold data items that are close together in key space.

There will probably be multiple such clusters throughout the network, any given document being replicated numerous times, depending on how much it is used.

This is a kind of " spontaneous symmetry breaking ", in which an initially symmetric state all nodes being the same, with random initial keys for each other leads to a highly asymmetric situation, with nodes coming to specialize in data that has closely related keys.

There are forces which tend to cause clustering shared closeness data spreads throughout the network , and forces that tend to break up clusters local caching of commonly used data.

These forces will be different depending on how often data is used, so that seldom-used data will tend to be on just a few nodes which specialize in providing that data, and frequently used items will be spread widely throughout the network.

Therefore, there will be no correlation between key closeness and similar popularity of data as there might be if keys did exhibit some semantic meaning, thus avoiding bottlenecks caused by popular subjects.

A CHK is a SHA hash of a document after encryption, which itself depends on the hash of the plaintext and thus a node can check that the document returned is correct by hashing it and checking the digest against the key.

This key contains the meat of the data on Freenet. It carries all the binary data building blocks for the content to be delivered to the client for reassembly and decryption.

The CHK is unique by nature and provides tamperproof content. A hostile node altering the data under a CHK will immediately be detected by the next node or the client.

CHKs also reduce the redundancy of data since the same data will have the same CHK and when multiple sites reference the same large files, they can reference to the same CHK.

SSKs are based on public-key cryptography. Currently Freenet uses the DSA algorithm. Documents inserted under SSKs are signed by the inserter, and this signature can be verified by every node to ensure that the data is not tampered with.

SSKs can be used to establish a verifiable pseudonymous identity on Freenet, and allow for multiple documents to be inserted securely by a single person.

Files inserted with an SSK are effectively immutable , since inserting a second file with the same name can cause collisions. USKs resolve this by adding a version number to the keys which is also used for providing update notification for keys registered as bookmarks in the web interface.

Inserting a document using a KSK allows the document to be retrieved and decrypted if and only if the requester knows the human-readable string; this allows for more convenient but less secure URIs for users to refer to.

A network is said to be scalable if its performance does not deteriorate even if the network is very large. The scalability of Freenet is being evaluated, but similar architectures have been shown to scale logarithmically.

However, this scalability is difficult to test without a very large network. Furthermore, the security features inherent to Freenet make detailed performance analysis including things as simple as determining the size of the network difficult to do accurately.

As of now, the scalability of Freenet has yet to be tested. As of version 0. Opennet connections are made automatically by nodes with opennet enabled, while darknet connections are manually established between users that know and trust each other.

The core innovation in Freenet 0. The scalability of Freenet is made possible by the fact that human relationships tend to form small-world networks, a property that can be exploited to find short paths between any two people.

Furthermore, the routing algorithm is capable of routing over a mixture of opennet and darknet connections, allowing people who have only a few friends using the network to get the performance from having sufficient connections while still receiving some of the security benefits of darknet connections.

This also means that small darknets where some users also have opennet connections are fully integrated into the whole Freenet network, allowing all users access to all content, whether they run opennet, darknet, or a hybrid of the two, except for darknet pockets connected only by a single hybrid node.

Unlike many other P2P applications Freenet does not provide comprehensive functionality itself. Freenet is modular and features an API called Freenet Client Protocol FCP for other programs to use to implement services such as message boards , file sharing, or online chat.

Law enforcement agencies have claimed to have successfully infiltrated freenet opennet in order to deanonymize users [48] but no technical details have been given to support these allegations.

One report stated that, "A child-porn investigation focused on A "freesite" is a site hosted on the Freenet network. Because it contains only static content, it cannot contain any active content like server side scripts or databases.

Freesites are coded in HTML and support as many features as the browser viewing the page allows; however, there are some exceptions where the Freenet software will remove parts of the code that may be used to reveal the identity of the person viewing the page making a page access something on the internet, for example.

Due to the much slower latency and bandwidth of the Freenet network, complex web technologies such as PHP and MySQL are impossible to use, making Freesites appear very simplistic, they are described by the community as being "90s-style" [ citation needed ].

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Free-Net. For other uses, see Freenet disambiguation. This article has multiple issues.

Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.

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Free and open-source software portal Computer Science portal Cryptography portal. The Free Network official website. Archived from the original on 21 September Retrieved 31 May

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The core problem with copyright is that enforcement of it requires monitoring of communications, and you cannot be guaranteed free speech if someone is monitoring everything you say.

This is important, most people fail to see or address this point when debating the issue of copyright, so let me make it clear:.

It is for this reason that Freenet, a system designed to protect Freedom of Speech, must prevent enforcement of copyright.

Firstly, even if copyright were the only way that artists could be rewarded for their work, then I would contend that freedom is more important than having professional artists those who claim that we would have no art do not understand creativity: Secondly, it could be questioned whether copyright is effective even now.

The music industry is one of the most vocally opposed to enhancements in communication technology, yet according to many of the artists who should be rewarded by copyright, it is failing to do so.

Rather it has allowed middle-men to gain control over the mechanisms of distribution, to the detriment of both artists and the public. There are many alternative ways to reward artists.

The simplest is voluntary payment. This is an extension of the patronage system which was frequently used to reward artists prior to copyright, where a wealthy person would fund an artist to allow them to create full-time.

The Internet permits an interesting extension of this idea, where rather than having just one wealthy patron, you could have hundreds of thousands, contributing small amounts of money over the Internet.

Ian started the Freenet Project around July of , and continues to coordinate the project. Learn more about Ian on his personal website. Matthew has been working on Freenet since before the 0.

His work and that of others has resulted in dramatic improvements to the performance and stability of the network. Oskar was also one of the earliest contributors to the Freenet Project, and has made some important theoretical breakthroughs that lead to the beginning of Freenet 0.

In his day job, he is the Technical Director of Matta Consulting , a boutique security consultancy firm and currently works on safepass. Michael has mostly contributed detailed simulations as part of the Google Summer of Code.

He has been helpful in designing the new transport layer. The current release manager. He joined in GSoC and has been a driving force behind tackling long standing issues in Freenet.

The Developer of the Web of Trust and Freetalk. He worked on the Web of Trust in part-time for one year and is now working as volunteer again.

A long term contributor who, among other things, helps keep the contact between the core developers and users in active subgroups. A Gentoo packager who untangled all the dependencies of Freenet and packaged it cleanly in Gentoo.

The current maintainer of pyFreenet and infocalypse. He also writes articles and tutorials for Freenet. A dilligent team of people from various backgrounds who make it possible to ship Freenet and this website in many different languages.

This list is missing many freesite authors, plugin writers, and a host of other people who contributed in various ways. A group of users and programmers who use an old spammable Freenet-based forum system which has been abandoned by most of the core developers.

They are active, however, and though it takes time for their contributions to reach to core development, they take part in Freenet development.

Steven helps with administration of Freenet Project Inc, and is an advisor to the project on business and publicity matters. Robert has helped improve the speed and security of Freenet by finding two major bugs, and has recently contributed some code.

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Webmail Read and write your emails on any computer. Typically, a host computer on the network runs the software that acts as a node, and it connects to other hosts running that same software to form a large distributed, variable-size network of peer nodes.

Some nodes are end user nodes, from which documents are requested and presented to human users. Other nodes serve only to route data.

All nodes communicate with each other identically — there are no dedicated "clients" or "servers". It is not possible for a node to rate another node except by its capacity to insert and fetch data associated with a key.

This is unlike most other P2P networks where node administrators can employ a ratio system, where users have to share a certain amount of content before they can download.

Freenet may also be considered a small world network. The Freenet protocol is intended to be used on a network of complex topology, such as the Internet Internet Protocol.

Each node knows only about some number of other nodes that it can reach directly its conceptual "neighbors" , but any node can be a neighbor to any other; no hierarchy or other structure is intended.

Each message is routed through the network by passing from neighbor to neighbor until it reaches its destination. As each node passes a message to a neighbor, it does not know whether the neighbor will forward the message to another node, or is the final destination or original source of the message.

This is intended to protect the anonymity of users and publishers. Each node maintains a data store containing documents associated with keys, and a routing table associating nodes with records of their performance in retrieving different keys.

The Freenet protocol uses a key-based routing protocol, similar to distributed hash tables. The routing algorithm changed significantly in version 0.

Prior to version 0. In either case, new connections were sometimes added to downstream nodes i. The disadvantage of this is that it is very easy for an attacker to find Freenet nodes, and connect to them, because every node is continually attempting to find new connections.

Darknet is less convenient, but much more secure against a distant attacker. This change required major changes in the routing algorithm.

Every node has a location, which is a number between 0 and 1. When a key is requested, first the node checks the local data store.

This goes on until some number of hops is exceeded, there are no more nodes to search, or the data is found. If the data is found, it is cached on each node along the path.

So there is no one source node for a key, and attempting to find where it is currently stored will result in it being cached more widely.

Essentially the same process is used to insert a document into the network: If older data is found, the older data is propagated and returned to the originator, and the insert "collides".

But this works only if the locations are clustered in the right way. Freenet assumes that the Darknet a subset of the global social network is a small-world network, and nodes constantly attempt to swap locations using the Metropolis—Hastings algorithm in order to minimize their distance to their neighbors.

However, it does not guarantee that data will be found at all. Eventually, either the document is found or the hop limit is exceeded.

The intermediate nodes may choose to cache the document along the way. Besides saving bandwidth, this also makes documents harder to censor as there is no one "source node.

Initially, the locations in Darknet are distributed randomly. This means that routing of requests is essentially random.

In Opennet connections are established by a join request which provides an optimized network structure if the existing network is already optimized.

As location swapping on Darknet and path folding on Opennet progress, nodes which are close to one another will increasingly have close locations, and nodes which are far away will have distant locations.

Data with similar keys will be stored on the same node. The result is that the network will self-organize into a distributed, clustered structure where nodes tend to hold data items that are close together in key space.

There will probably be multiple such clusters throughout the network, any given document being replicated numerous times, depending on how much it is used.

This is a kind of " spontaneous symmetry breaking ", in which an initially symmetric state all nodes being the same, with random initial keys for each other leads to a highly asymmetric situation, with nodes coming to specialize in data that has closely related keys.

There are forces which tend to cause clustering shared closeness data spreads throughout the network , and forces that tend to break up clusters local caching of commonly used data.

These forces will be different depending on how often data is used, so that seldom-used data will tend to be on just a few nodes which specialize in providing that data, and frequently used items will be spread widely throughout the network.

Therefore, there will be no correlation between key closeness and similar popularity of data as there might be if keys did exhibit some semantic meaning, thus avoiding bottlenecks caused by popular subjects.

A CHK is a SHA hash of a document after encryption, which itself depends on the hash of the plaintext and thus a node can check that the document returned is correct by hashing it and checking the digest against the key.

This key contains the meat of the data on Freenet. It carries all the binary data building blocks for the content to be delivered to the client for reassembly and decryption.

The CHK is unique by nature and provides tamperproof content. A hostile node altering the data under a CHK will immediately be detected by the next node or the client.

CHKs also reduce the redundancy of data since the same data will have the same CHK and when multiple sites reference the same large files, they can reference to the same CHK.

SSKs are based on public-key cryptography. Currently Freenet uses the DSA algorithm. Documents inserted under SSKs are signed by the inserter, and this signature can be verified by every node to ensure that the data is not tampered with.

SSKs can be used to establish a verifiable pseudonymous identity on Freenet, and allow for multiple documents to be inserted securely by a single person.

Files inserted with an SSK are effectively immutable , since inserting a second file with the same name can cause collisions.

USKs resolve this by adding a version number to the keys which is also used for providing update notification for keys registered as bookmarks in the web interface.

Inserting a document using a KSK allows the document to be retrieved and decrypted if and only if the requester knows the human-readable string; this allows for more convenient but less secure URIs for users to refer to.

A network is said to be scalable if its performance does not deteriorate even if the network is very large. The scalability of Freenet is being evaluated, but similar architectures have been shown to scale logarithmically.

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